- Pathogenicity of the organism
- Mode of transmission and host range
- Availability of effective preventive measures (e.g., vaccines)
- Availability of effective treatment (e.g., antibiotics)
- Other factors
*Please note, the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, Fifth Edition. (2009) or “BMBL” outlines biological safety levels (BSLs), which are distinct from risk group levels. A proper risk assessment for biological agents must always be conducted before establishing a biological safety level.
(search will sort by Species/Viral Group and show only top 500 matches)
(results: Pseudoalteromonas, pseudomycoides, Pseudallescheria, etc.)
You can use Boolean operators OR, AND
anthracis AND bacillus
anthracis OR bacillus
CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (2009)
Risk Group 1 (RG1) agents are not associated with disease in healthy adult humans.
WHO Classification of Infective Microorganisms by Risk Group (2004)
WHO Risk Group 1 (no or low individual and community risk). A microorganism that is unlikely to cause human disease or animal disease.
Australian/New Zealand Standard (2010)
Standard AS-NZS 2243-3:2010. Safety in laboratories – Microbiological Safety and Containment
Canadian Biosafety Handbook 2nd edition, 2016
A microorganism, nucleic acid, or protein that is either a) not capable of causing human or animal disease; or b) capable of causing human or animal disease, but unlikely to do so. Those capable of causing disease are considered pathogens that pose a low risk to the health of individuals or animals, and a low risk to public health and the animal population. RG1 pathogens can be opportunistic and may pose a threat to immunocompromised individuals. Due to the low risk to public health and animal population associated with RG1 material, there are no physical or operational requirements for handling them. Nonetheless, due care should be exercised and safe work practices (e.g., good microbiological laboratory practices) should be followed when handling these materials.
A pathogen or toxin that poses a moderate risk to the health of individuals or animals, and a low risk to public health and the animal population. These pathogens are able to cause serious disease in a human or animal but are unlikely to do so. Effective treatment and preventive measures are available and the risk of spread of diseases caused by these pathogens is low. Examples of RG2 human pathogens are included in Schedule 2 of the HPTA.
A pathogen that poses a high risk to the health of individuals or animals, and a low risk to public health. These pathogens are likely to cause serious disease in a human or animal. Effective treatment and preventive measures are usually available and the risk of spread of disease caused by these pathogens is low for the public. The risk of spread to the animal
population, however, can range from low to high depending on the pathogen. Examples of RG3 human pathogens are included in Schedule 3 of the HPTA.
A pathogen that poses a high risk to the health of individuals or animals and a high risk to public health. These pathogens are likely to cause serious disease in a human or animal, which can often lead to death. Effective treatment and preventive measures are not usually available and the risk of spread of disease caused by these pathogens is high for the public. The risk of spread of disease to the animal population, however, ranges from low to high, depending on the pathogen. Examples of RG4 human pathogens are included in Schedule 4 of the HPTA.
European Economic Community (2000)
Group 1 biological agent means one that is unlikely to cause human disease.
Risk Group 1: biomaterials, where it is unlikely that they cause disease in humans
Singapore (guidelines are from 2012; updated list of organisms is from 2016): BATA Schedules
Risk Group 3 Biological Agents which can cause serious disease which is of high risk to the individual.
Description is the same as First Schedule Part I but they also have the potential to be weaponized.
Risk Group 4 Biological Agents which can cause severe / lethal disease, easily transmitted and of high risk to the individual and the community. These agents have the potential to be weaponized.
Risk Group 2 Biological Agents that need special attention in large scale production.
All Risk Group 2 Biological Agents (including those in Third Schedule) which cause disease in humans.
Microbial toxins that have the potential to be weaponized.
United Kingdom (2013)
Group 1 Unlikely to cause human disease.
Risk Group Database
1. Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens. 2013. “The Approved List of biological agents” 3rd Edition. Health and Safety Executive – United Kingdom.
2. Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 2243.3:2010. “Safety in laboratories Part 3: Microbiological aspects and containment facilities”.
3. Belgian risk group classifications: https://www.biosafety.be/content/tools-belgian-classification-micro-organisms-based-their-biological-risks
4. Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. 2013. “Verordnung über Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei Tätigkeiten mit Biologischen Arbeitsstoffen (Biostoffverordnung - BioStoffV)”.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. “Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories” 5th Edition. Government Printing Office
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention & Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2017. Select Agent Program - Select Agents and Toxins.
7. European Union. 2000. Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work. Seventh individual directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EC Official Journal of the European Communities L262/21. October 17, 2000
https://osha.europa.eu/en/legislation/directives/exposure-to-biological-agents/77” rel=”external” data-box=”_blank”>http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32000L0054 https://osha.europa.eu/en/legislation/directives/exposure-to-biological-agents/77
8. Government of Canada. 2016. Canadian Biosafety Handbook, Second Edition.
9. National Institutes of Health. 2016. NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules (NIH Guidelines) (April 2016). The current version of the NIH Guidelines can be accesses at:
10. Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH), Biological Agents and Toxins Act (BATA). Updated Biological Agents and Toxins List.
11. World Health Organization. 2004. “Laboratory Biosafety Manual”. 3rd Edition. WHO, Geneva.